The Gudbrandsdalen valley is one of the most populated valleys in Norway, extending roughly 140 km from the town of Lillehammer in the south to the village of Dombås in the north. The area has abundant flood plains along the river, which are extensively used as farmland. Furthermore, due to the scarcity of other available land, many settlements are located along the river.
In the Pyrenees, as well as other European mountains, studies have indicated that landslides and subsequent flooding have decreased in places where the forest has conquered past grasslands, especially in the highest part of pastures. In some cases, reforestation has demonstrated its usefulness in coping with hydro-climatic extreme events by reducing the hazard intensity.
The Serchio River Basin is defined as a basin of national interest according to Italian law. It has been identified as a ‘river basin district’ for implementing the EU’s Water Framework Directive. The unique combination of challenges that are present includes extreme drought and flooding, seismic risk as well as water pollution.